List of acronyms and organizations

Here we present a glossary of terms, acronyms, and names used in the book and on this website.

ABM Treaty
Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty
Action Program
Main document stating the objectives of the Prague Spring
Amendment Conference
proposed conference intended to turn the PTB unto a CTBT
Article 6 of the Soviet Constitution
the article that guaranteed a “leading role” for the Communist Party in the Soviet government
Ballistic missile defense
Bolshevik Party
the original communist faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party that seized power and became the CPSU
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
magazine published by scientists who opposed nuclear weaponry
Center for Applied Nonviolent Action and Strategies, based in Belgrade
Center for the Development of Democracy and Human Rights
Yury Dzhibladze’s organization in Moscow
Central Committee
The main administrative body of the Communist Party.
Conventional Forces in Europe (treaty)
Charter 77 (Czech: Charta 77)
Group that demanded democracy in Czechoslovakia before the Velvet Revolution
The US Central Intelligence Agency
Civic Peace
Briefly a Russian peace organizations that was able to put on the END convention in 1991, just before the coup
Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, a British peace organization
Committee of Soldiers’ Mothers
an organization consisting mainly of the parents of soldiers concerned about their sons’ wellbeing
Committee to Protect Journalists
organization that attempts to defend journalists everywhere and publicizes abuses against them
Communist International
there were several international organizations over time devoted to promoting communism throughout the world. The one formally called the Communist International (Comintern) was active between 1919–1943.
Congress of People’s Deputies
a democratic parliament that was formed during Gorbachev’s administration
Communist Party
Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Confidence and Security Building Measures
Committee of Soviet Scientists for Peace and Against the Nuclear Threat
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
Dartmouth Conferences
elite organization that brought together Soviet and American leaders for long-running dialogues
De Burght Conferences
meetings arranged in the Netherlands that marked the movement of the Soviet Union toward religious freedom
Democratic Russia
a mass movement that supported Yeltsin before he took office
East/West Dialogue Group
A spin-off group from END that had carried on discussions between Eastern and Western activists
European Nuclear Disarmament, the umbrella organization that brought together peace groups all over Europe and the Soviet Union
European communists in several countries who were much more democratic than the CPSU
Federation of American Scientists
an organization of American scientists who opposed nuclear weaponry
Freedom and Peace
Polish group of youths demanding the right to conscientious objection
Freedom House
organization in the US that monitors adherence to democracy in all countries of the world and publishes their findings
the successor organization to the KGB
“government-organized non-governmental organization“— the term is a joke to designate capture of NGO activities by the state
Gorbachev Foundation
Institution in Moscow founded by Gorbachev, where he fosters research and charitable projects
Green Cross International
Organization founded by Gorbachev to promote the environment and peace globally. Based in Geneva
Green World
Ukrainian environmental movement
Greenham Common Peace Camp
British site of a nuclear weapons installation where women camped in protest for several years.
Graduated Reciprocation in Tension Reduction; an approach to resolving an impasse without negotiating but by taking limited initiatives
Group to Establish Trust Between East and West, Group to Establish Trust Between USSR and USA
Trustbuilders, Group for Trust. An independent organization carrying out peace work in the Soviet Union
Helsinki Citizens Assembly, a peace group bringing together citizens of the East and the West
Human Rights Commission
organization founded by Burlatsky in 1988 and co-chaired by Rosalynn Carter
Dutch inter-church peace organization
Institute of World Economy and International Relations, a Moscow research institute
INF Treaty
Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces Treaty—a major achievement of Gorbachev and Reagan
Institute of World Economy and International Relations
Institute for Defense and Disarmament Studies
Randall Forsberg’s institute In Massachusetts
Institute of Social Sciences
an elite Moscow training institution for foreign communists, who were isolated from Soviet society
Institute of State and Law
research and training institute for specialists in government
International Center for Development Policy
A Washington organization led by Lindsay Mattison
International Department
The branch of the Communist Party dealing with international affairs
International Federation of Journalists
An organization that keeps records of human rights abuses directed against journalists for doing their work
International Foundation for Survival and Development of Humanity
International foundation created by Yevgeny Velikhov
Inter-Regional Group of People’s Deputies
a group of radically democratic members of the new Congress of People’s Deputies.
International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War. Co-founded by Bernard Lown and Yevgeny Chazov. A major organization during the 1980s and 1990s
Institute For the Study of the USA and Canada. Also known as USA/Canada Institute
Institute of Oriental Studies in Moscow
the state security police of the USSR
Enough!— the Georgian organization that ousted Shevardnadze
the main magazine of the Soviet Communist Party
Kurchatov Institute
major nuclear research institution in Moscow
Living Ring
organization comprising people who had been present at the Russian White House defending Yeltsin against the coup
Los Alamos
site where the first atomic bombs were developed in the US
“mutual assured destruction”—the idea behind deterrence as a way of preventing real wars
An organization of activists devoted to keeping alive the memory of Gulag victims and working for human rights
The British spy agency
multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles
Moscow Helsinki Group
Russians who intended to hold the Soviet Union to its commitment to the Helsinki Accords
Moscow Limited Test Ban Treaty
Partial test ban treaty that bans nuclear weapons in outer space and under water
Moscow Protocol
a forced agreement between the leaders of the Prague Spring and the Soviet leaders
National Endowment for Democracy
government-funded institution in Washington, D.C. that promotes democratic capacities around the world
New Economic Program. Period when Lenin allowed small businesses to resume.
Organization of citizens opposing the testing of nuclear weapons in both the US and the Soviet Union
Nonviolence International
a peace organization with branches in the US, Bangkok, and Russia, where it does much work in the Caucasus
Novo-Ogarevo Treaty
the new Union Treaty that would have been enacted if the coup against Gorbachev had not occurred
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
National Resources Defense Council. An American organization addressing environmental and peace issues
a Russian nonviolent movement that aims to organize a color revolution
Open Russia Foundation
founded by Khodorkovsky, this organization was disbursing money for democratization until Khodorkovsky was arrested
Orange Revolution
the movement in Ukraine that protested against a fraudulent election and won a more democratic government
Palme Commission
A group led by Olof Palme to develop common security.
Italian Communist Party
People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan, then the communist regime in Afghanistan
Pew Research Center
American research organization that studies public opinion
Parliamentarians for Global Action. An association of legislators around the world who work on peace-related issues.
principle policy-making committee of a Communist Party
the nonviolent movement that organized the Orange Revolution in Ukraine
Prague Spring
a movement led by Gorbachev’s friend Zdeněk Mlynář to liberalize the CP of Czechoslovakia. It was crushed.
Problems of Peace and Socialism
the journal known in English as the World Marxist Review
Promoting Enduring Peace
A group of Westerners who cruised down the Dnieper together in 1989
Public Chamber
a body created by Putin to investigate social problems and recommend solutions. It is not independent, but run by the state
Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
international organization of scientists who call for nuclear disarmament
Radio Liberty
A foreign radio that broadcast information that the Soviet state did not want disseminated
Ukrainian nationalistic movement
Russian Peace Society
An independent group of citizens during the Gorbachev years who promoted Tolstoy’s ideas
Lithuanian popular front
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty
an important American peace organization during the 1980s. Merged with the Freeze campaign.
Sary Shagan
Kazakhstan site for testing laser ABM technology
Soviet Committee for the Defence of Peace (Soviet Peace Committee)
Strategic Defense Initiative, or “Star Wars,” Reagan’s hoped-for missile defence system
Servicio de la Paz y Justicia
Latin American group that carries on nonviolent resistance against dictators and undemocratic regimes. Also known by the acronym SERPAJ
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
Six Nations Peace Initiative
Also “Five Continent Peace Initiative“—an organization of six states developed mainly by Parliamentarians Global Action
Soldiers’ Mothers
see Committee of Soldiers’ Mothers
the trade union that won freedom for Poland from Soviet control.
Soviet Academy of Sciences
The main organization of scholars in the Soviet Union
Soviet Peace Committee
Soviet Committee for the Defence of Peace (Soviet Peace Committee)
Soviet Peace Fund
money donated by Soviet citizens to be used by the official peace organizations run by the state
Soviet Political Science Association
professional organization founded by support research on political matters.
Soviet mid-range missile
Strategic Defense Initiative
the missile defence system that Reagan hoped to create
Transnational Radical Party
peace-oriented international party based mainly in Italy but with a branch in Moscow
Transparency International
an organization that monitors corruption in all countries and reports their findings publicly.
Trust Group, Trustbuilders
Group to Establish Trust Between the USSR and the USA
Twentieth Party Congress
the party meeting in which Khrushchev revealed the crimes of Stalin
Union Treaty
the treaty that would have replaced the old constitution of the Soviet Union, had it been adopted
United World Federalists
an NGO in which Norman Cousins played a major part, fostering world governance
USA/Canada Institute
a Moscow research institute, the Institute for the Study of the USA and Canada, also known by the Russian acronym ISKRAN
Voice of America
a broadcasting system supported by the US government and covering much of the Soviet Union
Westminster Foundation
British organization parallel to the National Endowment for Democracy
World Order Models Project, led mainly by Falk and Mendlovitz
World Peace Council
Warsaw Treaty Organization
Yabloko Party
A liberal party that had a significant following during the 1990s but is not allowed to publicize its programs now
Zero Option
Reagan’s proposal not to deploy Pershing missiles if the Soviets would remove their missiles

The Russian Quest for Peace and Democracy, by Metta Spencer, published by Lexington Books